Identifying The Israelites: A Scholarly Perspective

The prophecies and statements in the Bible concerning the nation of Israel presents us with evidence that their identity would be lost as a result of being forcefully dispersed throughout all nations into slavery and then appropriated by another people (Deuteronomy 32:26, Jeremiah 17:4, Revelation 2:9,3:9). The Good Book tells us that God’s people will be in slavery, and discontinued from their heritage until Jesus makes his Second Coming and deliver’s them from Slavery. This information is not taught in schools and churches due to deception and the wicked agenda’s that are maintained in the political and spiritual realms.

Thus, it is necessary for those that have studied to show themselves approved to prove this truth to others because every person deserves to know the truth.

In identifying the true people of Israel, I am going to review a book called The Truth About Black Biblical Hebrew-Israelites (Jews) by Ella J. Hughley (1982). It was originally published as a pamphlet entitled “Basic Facts About Black Hebrew Israelites” in 1981. This book serves as the revised, more comprehensive version of that pamphlet and was released the following year due to its high demand. Following is a video and some archeological findings to compliment Hughley’s argument.


Hughley’s main arguments are as follows: 1) To prove that the original people of the Bible were a people of dark hue. 2) The Bible is the history book of the black Hebrew-Israelites who originally practiced the Judaic way of life. 3) The Caucasian Jews converted to Judaism much later over the centuries.

These arguments are utterly crucial due to a stream of interconnected moral, anthropological, theological, and epistemological reasons. Firstly, if recorded events of old can harmonize with various Old and New Testament Biblical events then it reveals the Bible’s veracity that many skeptics doubt. If this book can serve as a credible history book then it will be fair to say that many nations of the world could associate and trace their history to the Bible (which many do). This has several important uses. But specifically, it is important because from cover to cover, the reoccurring theme of the Biblical narrative is based upon the relationship between the Israelites and their God. Since this is the case, that means that any person or group of people that purports to be a bloodline Israelite and thus “chosen”, by logic should be able to defend their claim with thorough proof from the Bible.

This should be fairly easy due to the fact that the God of the Israelites said that he would put curses on the descendants of the Israelites for a “sign and for a wonder… forever.” (Deuteronomy 28:46). A sign is something that is used to identify something else. So anyone that is a bloodline Israelite should clearly be able to be identified. The very idea of a chosen people is a stumbling block for most, however most people do not challenge the fact that it is plausible. From times immemorial (beyond European rule), there has always been controversy over the issue of a chosen people.

The fact that this issue exists, means that it needs to be and can be solved. I believe that this Biblical method is not only essential but also simple and would appease the copious amounts of social and political contention regarding this issue. If the Israelites true identity can be excavated this way (along with existing literature and archeology findings) coupled with truly understanding the Biblical narrative then not only would it solve the mystery of the “lost tribes” but it could possibly quell the ethnocentrism that the so called Jew perpetuates. Thus, the idea of ethnic hierarchy would not exist (at least for these peoples) which could be an impetus for relative peace. Simultaneously, this unveiling could rid all minds of the inherited lies of pseudo-scientific justification for the mistreatment of the darker races as many people still cling to these views. When one examines the prophetic draconian curses that were to fall upon the descendants of Jacob (Israel) “forever” due to disobedience, it shows who is in control. If the Bible can be found true by way of accurately foretelling world events such as this (and others), it would give credence in dictating what deity is in control, and if mankind adheres to who is in control, then that would give no man preeminence over another.

Hughley does not mention this but she does explicitly allude to the Biblical prophecy that unveils the identity of true Israelites. Hughley states, “although the children of Israel were chosen to teach and be an example of good moral conduct to the peoples of the world, they were a rebellious nation. Their misconduct under Moses’ leadership is described in Biblical passages. Because of disobedience, God scattered the children of Israel throughout different parts of the world, as foretold in the prophecies of Holy Scripture” (p. 18). She later expounds on this “scattering” in the chapter, “Periods of captivity” whereby she explores the seemingly enigmatic yet stimulating prophecy of Israelite captivity starting in 722 B.C.E. by the Assyrians and culminating with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. These curses also involved the removal of the Israelites from the land of Canaan to the four corners of the earth. She and other scholars (Windsor: 1988, Israel: 2010, Farrar: 1996, and Williams: 1930) agree that this removal began in 70 AD when the Roman Emperor Titus besieged Jerusalem and over 1,000,000 Jews fled into North Africa to escape persecution.

Being displaced from their land, they eventually became more susceptible to being sold into slavery as “bondmen and bondwomen” by the Ishmaelite’s (Arabs) and later by their identical Hamitic counterparts to the Europeans or Gentiles. Hughley, explains that the descendants of these Israelites are supposed to be the head of all nations but due to their disobedience they are on the bottom rung of the societal ladder as a whole. She strongly urges the readers to peruse the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy to understand these curses and conditions of captivity that were to befall the descendants of the Israelites.

When tracing the thread of the past to uncover the present identity of these Semitic peoples, Hughley starts off with their phenotype. Hughley makes a noble attempt to prove that the original Biblical Israelites were of a dark hue. One of her statements being: “We know that that Abraham, was black because he was born in the city founded by the black Nimrod, the grandson of Ham (Gen. 10:8-10)” (pg.11). This is a good observation but Hughley does not conclusively prove that Abraham’s dependents are “black” on this point alone. How does this make them a dark skinned people? She made no reference to the fact that Nimrod was the son of Cush, which was commonly referred to Nubia, and that he (Cush) was the progenitor of the Ethiopians. Furthermore, Abraham’s Father was from the Land of Ur (Chaldea) and many Cushite-Chaldean tribes populated that land and had been found to be black. She did however, mention that Cush is the son of Ham and that the Harpers Bible dictionary states that Ham is the progenitor of the African races.

In 2013, Tudor Parfitt published a book entitled “Black Jews in Africa And The Americas”. Parfitt dedicates a chapter to the identity of Ham and his research reveals that Ham is the progenitor of the Egyptians, Ethiopians, Libyans, and Canaanites. Parfitt’s work shows the on going relevancy of this topic. Hughley proceeds to point out that Moses could not have passed for Pharaoh’s grandson in Egypt if he had not been black. Moreover, in Exodus 4:6,7 he was mistaken for an Egyptian, which proves that he had to be of a brown hue. Hughley should have mentioned that Jesus along with many other Israelites were also mistaken for Egyptians several times in the old and new testaments. This is a highly significant factor and is disturbing as to why the bulk of historians and educators refer to all black people as “Africans”. This idea of representation for the black populace is something that seriously needs to be addressed.

Now, if there were a conspiracy to obscure the identity of the true Israelites, it would make perfect sense why the Bible’s black history is not well known. Hughley did not mention this, but in the book of Psalm (Song) – composed by King David, who the God of Israel recognized as the apple of his eye and a prophet, – King David writes about a conspiracy that would completely distort the Israelites identity:

Psalm 83
King James Version (KJV)

Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God.

For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head.

They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones.

They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance.

For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee:

The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes;

It is important to note that at the top of this list of confederate nations on one accord to destroy the identity of the Israelites, we find the Edomites and the Ishmaelite’s. It is known by theologians and historians alike that Ishmaelite’s are the patriarchs of the modern day Arabs. But who are the Edomites? Surprisingly enough, the Edomites as Hughley points out are the one’s who have stolen the identity of the true Israelites (analyzed in more detail below). Moreover, and to no marvel, these two nations are the ones that currently occupy the land of Israel today. In verse 12 of the same Psalm, King David further informs us of the agenda of these conspirators as they said: Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession.”

Hughley fails to highlight how the Israelites described themselves in the bible. Some descriptions include having, “black skin”, “hair like wool”, “bushy locks” and “feet the color of brass as if they burned in a furnace”. We should understand that regardless of what the Israelites looked like in the past, their identity needs to be revealed as the texts of the two largest religions in the world agree upon their importance (even if the practitioners of these religions do not). I have not read any accounts on this topic whereby this point is emphasized. The Quran states “O Children of Israel, remember my favor that I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds [i.e., people]” (Sura 2:40). This same sentiment of the Israelites being chosen, special, and important is seen in various other places in the Quran. Likewise when Jesus was on this earth he stated in the book of John that “Salvation is of the Jews”. Salvation or eternal life in Jesus’ kingdom on this earth is what true Christianity is based on. So keeping in mind the importance of the Israelites job, which gives way to the “signs” needed to specifically identify them, it should be apparent that their phenotypic marker is by default, important. This is the case with identifying any one in any specific manner, especially if these people are “lost”, “scattered”, and or “hidden” as the Bible suggests. Furthermore, no one deserves to be misrepresented in any way.

Another important aspect of Hughley’s work was her writings dedicated to how these “chosen people” can reclaim their religious heritage. By stating that the Bible is the history book of these people, she underscores that studying the bible is the only way to reclaim their religiosity. She writes, “It is important for people, both black and white, to know the truth about the original Biblical tribes and their way of life which all of the Biblical prophets taught and practiced. One reason why black people should know the truth about their religious heritage is because they lost their true religion when they were dispersed throughout different nations and sold into slavery in the early 1600’s, intermingled, and were forced to practice the religion of their slave masters, that is, Christianity.” (p.24).  From an anthropological standpoint I am very much interested in the representation of the so-called “African-American” identity.

Since their arrival in the Americas they have been given copious amounts of appellations that do no justice in identifying a person. An example is the very term, “African-American” – How can these people realistically claim to be from two continents? Is there any other nation that permanently claims to be from two continents without clarification? Immigrant nations like the “Chinese-Americans” will be able to tell you where in China they are from. However, this is not the case with the majority of “African-Americans”. Africa is the largest continent, so one surely has to be definitive when laying claim to Africa. Furthermore, both “Africa” (Scipio Africanus) and “America” (Amerigo Vespucci) are just names of two Italians. The average European will not simply say I am from Europa. They will say from whence in Europe they are from. However, the “African-American” populace simply cannot mark where they are from. Even mitochondria DNA sampling has been proven to be unreliable and erratic when tracing ancestry. Thus scholars and historians know that these peoples were taken from different parts of Africa to the ports of The Gambia and so forth before embarkation for the New World.

However, the point is that whilst in Africa the bulk of men and women sold by the children of Ham were not “African”. If history repeats itself, then the four hundred year bondage of the Israelites in Egypt where they are said to have built the treasure cities of Ramses (including the pyramids), would once again be subject to Hamites. There is also a correlation with the fact that the vast amount of “African-Americans” made America a super power in the way that the Israelites helped made Egypt a super. Other titles are “Afro-American”, “Black”, “Negro”, and “Colored”. These descriptions of colors and Italian men do not do justice to a person’s identity. It is for this very reason that a true identity crisis has continually consumed the so-called “black” man in the Americas. When one looks at the continual self hate, black on black crime, lack of language, heritage, land, wealth, and identity, that plagues the “African-American” community on a wholesale level, it is safe to say that they are truly a “lost” people.

Concerning this lost of identity; two specific verses come to mind. When outlining more of the curses that the God of Israel said he would eventually put on the Israelites for disobedience (before they entered the promise land) he stated: “I said, I would scatter them into corners, I would make the remembrance of them to cease from among men” (Deuteronomy 32:26). He also said, “And thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations whither the Lord shall lead thee.” (Deuteronomy 28:32). Not only do titles such as “Negro” and “Afro-American” represent bywords, but darkie, sambo, nigger, coon, blackie, porch monkey, spade nig, jungle bunny etc. represent bywords and proverbs. I would argue that the African-American has had more racial slurs attributed to them than any other ethnic group in time and space. If the bible is true, then these curses must fit one nation of people. If the majority of “African-American” peoples fit all of these curses, then the only solution in finding their true representation and reversing their condition of impotence is adhering to their God which put them in this position. Hughley makes this abundantly clear and I appreciate her ability to compact so much information in a short sixty-eight page book.

Hughley’s chapter “The White European Jews” was compelling and thought provoking as it aimed at answering questions such as: Who are the White European Jews? When did they convert to Judaism? Are the Jews a race? These questions are of utmost importance, especially when coming across the words of Jesus in the last book of the bible where he asserts, I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich “spiritually”) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan (Revelations 2:9) – Emphasis added. Similarly in Revelations 3:9 he states, “Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee.” Hughley writes, “Esau is the father of the white Edomites, also known as Idumeans, who, with other ethnic groups such as the Khazars (white Europeans/Caucasians) and others, make up modern Jewry as it is known today” (p. 35).

Hughley is not novel or alone in her findings. The Hungarian-British author and journalist, Arthur Koestler published a book entitled, “The Thirteenth Tribe” in 1976. Koestler argued that the Ashkenazi Jews are descendants of the Khazars rather than biblical Israelites. Hughley references Koestler in this chapter. In 2008, Israeli professor of History at Tel Aviv University, Shlomo Sand published “The Invention of the Jewish People”. Originally in Hebrew, his work (2008) asserted that people commonly known as Jewish, never really existed as a ‘nation-race’ with a biblical origin, but rather they consist of descendants from the medieval Eurasian state of Khazaria. He mentions how they adopted the customs known as Judaism today. The central and most contentious reasoning that Sand uses to support this Jewish trope is that the Jewish Exile in 70 AD as it is conventionally knows, did not occur. He challenges the status of Jewry as an exiled people. As Sand explains, “The ultra-paradigm of deportation was essential for the construction of a long-term memory wherein an exiled people-race could be described as the direct descendants of the former ‘people of the Bible.’”( p. 130). This again proves that Hughley’s work is still relevant as she juxtaposes the idea of the former versus the modern Jew. Hughley explores Genesis 10, commonly known as the “Table of Nations” and traces the lineage of the European Jews to Noah’s son, Japheth whose descendants are commonly referred to as “Gentiles” in the bible but by historians as the “Indo-European stock”.

Upon referring to various accounts of anthropologist to support the Khazar Jews’ association with Japheth, she then turns to explore the identity of Esau/Edom aka Idumeans. She does so primarily by expounding on the popular biblical narrative of Esau and Jacob. While pregnant, the God of Israel told their mother Rebekah that she had two separate nations in her womb and that the Elder would serve the younger.  Jacob (the younger), ended up receiving the birthright which included his name being changed to Israel, inheriting the land of Canaan, and being commissioned as a holy nation of priests and kings to all kindred’s and tongues – Exodus 19:5-6. Hughley, like most theologians and writers on this topic erroneously infers that Jacob stole Esau’s birthright. She writes, “We also see in the scriptures where enmity commenced between the ‘nations’ (Esau and Jacob) when Jacob tricked Esau out of his birthright and stole his blessing.” (p .40)

However, I think this is a very critical and blatant misunderstanding. For one, it is very clear that enmity existed between these two brothers while they were in the womb (Genesis 25:22-23). More importantly, Jacob did not steal Esau’s birthright as it is explicitly recorded twice in the bible that Esau sold his birthright to Jacob in Genesis 25:31-33 and Hebrews 12:16. Nonetheless, this enmity has always existed between these two nations. By drawing upon the work of Josephus, W.G. Wells, other scholars, and various encyclopedias, Hughley conclusively reveals the enmity of these two nations in time and space. After presenting her tightly knit research she writes, “We can readily see how Esau (Edomites) is fighting to survive to break his (Jacob’s) yoke from off his neck. Their participation in the Roman-Jewish War of 66-70 C.E. gives evidence of this unending hostility between the two nations.

Hughley provides a great deal of historic sources when explicating the gradual process of how the Edomites (and European Jews) converted to what is known as Judaism, occupied the land of Israel, and eventually became known as the biblical Israelites. For the Edomites, this process started as early as the 6th century B.C.E. as a result of forced migration by the hands of the Nabateans (who are reported a Northern Arabian tribe). They were driven out of their own land commonly known as Idumea and inhabited Southern Judea during the Israelite captivity under the Babylonians. This was the beginning of their identity theft. A whole process was yet to unfold. Quoting The New Standard Jewish Encyclopedia Hughley writes, “The Edomites were conquered by John Hyracanus who forcibly converted them to Judaism at the end of the second century B.C.E., and from then on they constituted a part of the Jewish people.” (p.46).

Drawing on the record of Flavius Josephus’ The Great Roman Jewish War: 70 A.D., she informs us that Hasmonean leader, John Hyracanus conquered the entire land of Edom “and undertook the forced conversion of its inhabitants to Judaism”. This is when the Edomites became a section of the Jewish people. Josephus also points out that the tyrannical king Herod was in fact an Edomite who was appointed king of Judea by the Romans in 40 B.C.E. and by 6 B.C.E., “Edom became part of the Roman province of Judea” (p. 43-44). In 70 A.D., they assisted the Romans to help Emperor Titus besiege Jerusalem, and as a result many Israelites were crucified, starved, and to escape persecution almost all of the Jews fled into North Africa. Once this took place, the Edomites whose land was also occupied, were able to completely inhabit the land of Israel. It is also interesting to note (which Hughley and other scholars do not) that after 70 A.D., Idumea/Edom no longer existed on any maps. The Edomites were prophesied to steal the heritage and take over the land of Israel in the book of Obadiah, which was written in the 6th century B.C.E. Hughley does not mention this clear-cut prophecy and I think it would have assisted her argument. As for the Khazar’s conversion Hughley states, “The Khazars (white Europeans/Japhetic in origins) converted to Judaism in 740 A.D. These groups, along with many other ethnic groups, make up modern Jewery. Although the black Hebrew-Israelites are the real descendants of ancient Israel, this truth is not known by many and it is the world’s best kept secret.”


Overall, this book is relevant due to what it reveals and what scholars, and researchers are constantly realizing about Semitic and Hamitic history. Although short, it serves as supplemental literature to the bodies of work that have been and are currently being published on this matter. This is important in order to thwart the mass confusion that still currently surrounds the conditions and identity crisis of the so-called Negro as well as the enigma of the “lost” tribes of Israel. More scholars on this topic need to research into the history of the purporting Jews (Edomites + Europeans) to see if their history can associate with all the prophetic curses as well as the phenotypic description of biblical Israelites.  

According to The Bible, these curses not only included a massive exodus by way of “ship” into all the corners of the earth and a loss of identity, but it also included wholesale poverty, being “hanged on trees”, “hidden in prison houses” and other specific curses, that are to remain on the children of Israel until the second advent of Jesus Christ. Hughley did not do a comparison of this nature, but if it was done, I think it would suffice as a surefire way to prove who are indeed the Israelites. Anthropologically and ethnologically speaking this would be the greatest re-write of history yet.

Watch New Perspectives on Israelite Identity:

About this Video:

To compliment Hughley’s argument of “African-Americans” and other dark skinned peoples being the true Israelites, I created this video presentation. This presentation entertains a paradigm shift, a notion that the people commonly known as Jews after 70 AD, are not biblical Israelites. It is a short (11 minute) interdisciplinary survey of information used to explore the statements that Jesus, King of the Jews, made in both the second, and third chapters of Revelations, which boldly and unequivocally states that there are a group of people purporting to be the tribe of Judah (Jews), when they are not.  It looks at perspectives from Israelite groups, Hitler, ex-President Ahmadinejad, Professor Shlomo Sand, and surveys archeological findings that I took in the British Museum along with some findings which are listed below. I added all of the sources and music which is used in this visual presentation. 

Israelites: Slaves of the Egyptians – approx. 1440 b.c.e.

“And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar and in brick…” (ref. Exo.1:14)

As slaves of the Egyptians, child labor was common among the Israelites.
The boy shown above is about 15 years old. Unlike Egyptian boys, this Hebrew will eventually grow a full beard.

…and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigor.” (ref. Exo.1:14)

These Israelite children are about 10 years old. They worked in the fields of the Egyptians, as their parents labored in the brick pits. Their days off depended on which of the many Egyptian deities their master worshipped.

Hebrews entering Egypt – approx. 1877 b.c.e.


Notice the design of the clothing. Unlike the Hebrews, the Egyptians basically wore plain white linen.


Historically speaking, these Hebrews would eventually become the rulers of Egypt. Then, they would become the slaves of Egypt. Approx. 1870 b.c.e., Yoseph, son of Israel, became the most powerful man in Egypt, second only to Pharoh himself (ref. Gen.41:39-45). This introduced the Hyksos period in Egyptian history.

Hebrew women wear very colorful clothing. Most shepherd garments are made from the wool of their sheep. The wool is dyed various colors, spun into yarn, and woven into highly innovative, distinctive, and decorative patterns. Notice that no two women are wearing the same pattern.
Hebrew women are considered very beautiful to look upon. The Egyptians actually created “make-up” to make themselves look as pretty as Hebrew women look naturally; with their vibrant eyes and luscious lips.


The biblical name of Egypt is “Mizraim”. They are a Hamitic people (ref. Gen.10:6). Their immediate family of nations include the Libyans, the Carthaginians, and the Philistines (ref. Gen.10:13).
The Egyptians considered themselves to be better than the other races of men. In fact, they would not even sit down to eat at the same table with a Hebrew (ref. Gen.43:32).


The first rulers of the human race, after the Flood, were from the family of Ham (ref. Gen.10:9-11). Nimrod, son of Cush, looked like the figures above. After the Great Confusion (ref. Gen.11:7-8), the sons of Cush established what came to be known as the Nubian Kingdoms of ancient Africa. The nations of Phut, and Sheba are also considered southern Hamitic people.



Israelites: Captives of the Assyrians
From the palace of Sennacherib, approx. 680 b.c.e. (ref. 2kings 18:13-14).


Who can mistake these Israelites for any people other than us, the descendants of the slaves brought to America. These people are not “White”, and certainly not “Native Americans” (i.e. “Indians”).

“Therefore, son of man, prepare for yourself an exile’s baggage, and go into exile by day in their sight…” (ref. Ezek.12:3)











The Elamites are from the seed of Shem (ref. Gen. 10:22), while the Medes are from the seed of Japheth
(ref. Gen. 10:2 – “Madai”).


The present day caste system of India is a direct result of the ancient merger of Madai and Elam
(ref. Dan. 11:1).
Established approx. 2,500 years ago, India’s caste system is based on skin color. The very light skinned descendants of Madai are far more privileged than the very dark skinned descendants of Elam.



The Ashanti claim they are the dispersed descendants of the biblical inhabitants of Ashan
(ref. Josh. 19:7 & 2Ch. 6:59).
Although the Ashanti have picked up many Hamitic customs, their Israelite customs are equally practiced. Among these Israelite practices are:

A. – Slavery for debt (ref. Exo. 25:39)
B. – Purification ceremony after childbirth (ref. Lev. 12:1-5)
C. – Menstrual seclusion (ref. Lev. 16:19-24)
D. – Belief in ONE Supreme Almighty Power (ref. Exo. 20:3)
E. – Extreme reverence for the Holy Name (ref. Exo. 20:7)

References and Picture Credits

Farrar, Moses, 1996, The Deceiving of the Black Race: Greatest Story ‘Never’ Told

Hughley, J. Ella, 1982, The Truth About Black Biblical Hebrew-Israelites (Jews: the Worlds Best Kept Secret)

Israel, Elisha, 2010, Into Egypt Again With Ships: A Message To The Forgotten Israelites

Koestler, Arthur, 1976, The Thirteenth Tribe

Sand, Shlomo, 2008, The Invention of the Jewish People

Williams, J. Joseph, 1930, Hebrewisms of West Africa 

Windsor, R. Rudolph, 1988, From Babylon to Timbuktu: A History of the Ancient Black Races Including the Black Hebrews 


The Holy Bible, King James Version. New York: American Bible Society: 1999;, 2000


Ouran, Sahih International Translation. Madinah, K.S.A,

International Publishing Co. Ltd. Jerusalem – 1960


p.110 … Dead Israelites
p.167 … Israelite Exiles

by Ada Feyerick
New York University Press – 1996

p.76-77 … (4) races of Man
p.190-191 … Hebrew Caravan

Edited by Michael D. Coogan
Oxford university Press – 1998
New York and Oxford

p.89 … Hebrew Brick Makers
p.322.8 … Kinky haired Captives of the Assyrians

by Jaromir Malek
Phaidon Press Limited – 2003
London and New York

p.253 … Bedouin Captive

National Geographic Society – 1967

p.34-35 … Modern Day Hebrews of the Middle East
p.131 … Hebrew Water Boy
p.141 … Young Hebrews Gathering Grapes
p.284 … Elamite Soldier

Edited by James B. Pritchard
Borders Press/HarperCollins Publishers – 2003
Ann Arbor, Michigan

p.49 … Captives of Ramesses II

by G.S.Wegener
Harpers and Row Publishers – 1963
New York and Evanston

p.36-37 … Arabs on Camels Battle Assyrians
p.74 … Israelite King Hoshea

Vol – Israel and Turkey
Greystone Press – 1966 and 1968
New York

p.94 … Exiled Israelite Musicians

by Joseph J. Williams, S.J.
Biblo and Tannen Publishers

p.82 … Ashanti Ambassador